Cataract Eye Surgery
ICataract is one of the most common eye conditions at global level. Essentially, a cataract involves the clouding of the lens. The function of the lens is to help focus and bend the light rays that come through your eyes so you can adequately perceive shapes, images, and distances. When cataract develops, the lens becomes cloudy and makes vision difficult.
Eventually, this eye condition can lead to blindness, and in fact, cataract is one of the top causes of blindness around the world, with more than 1 million people losing their vision as a result of this condition. In India, it is estimated that the number of people who lose their eyesight due to cataract is in the region of 3.8 million every year.
What are the Causes
Although cataract may develop for multiple reasons, the most common cause is ageing. The eye lens is made up of water and proteins, which start to break down when we age. As time goes by and the breakdown process becomes more severe, proteins in the lens form a cloudy clump and the lens loses its ability to function normally.
- Diabetes can make cataract develop faster, and people affected by this disease are 2 to 5 times more likely to suffer from cataract than those who are not diabetic.
- Exposure to unclean or biomass cooking fuels, especially when used in poorly ventilated areas.
- Prolonged exposure to sunlight, as ultraviolet rays can alter protein composition inside the eye lens.
- Long-term use of medications used to control inflammation or cholesterol.
- Genetic causes, since some children are born with cataracts, although this is a rare condition.
- Previous trauma or injury to the eye can cause cataract to appear later on.
Risk factors for Cataracts?
Obesity, Smoking and Excess Alcohol consumption.
Diseases like High Blood Pressure and Diabetes.
Prolonged intake of Corticosteroid medications and Statin medications to lower cholesterol.
Exposure to Air pollution, Excess UV Radiation from Sunlight.
Previous Eye Surgery or Eye Injury or High Spectacle powers for Near Sightedness.
What are the Types of Cataract?
Age Related Cataract
This is the most common type, which occurs as a result of the aging process.
Some babies are born with Cataract due to an injury, infection, or improper development. They may also develop cataract during their early childhood.
This type of Cataract may occur because of medical problems like diabetes or due to continued use of certain medications, exposure to UV radiation or certain toxic substances.
A lens may also turn cloudy after an eye injury.
What are the Symptoms of Cataract?
As the condition advances, you may find it hard to read, drive, or watch TV, or you may notice that your night vision has worsened. Double vision and seeing halos around lights are other common symptoms along with blurry, cloudy, or foggy vision.
How is Cataract Diagnosed?
If you experience any or several of the symptoms above, it is important that you visit an eye doctor so you can get an accurate diagnosis. Some of the tests you can expect to have include:
- 1. Visual acuity test, where you’ll be asked to read letters of different sizes off a chart.
- 2. A dilated eye examination using a slit lamp.
What is the Treatment of Cataract?
Surgery is the only treatment for cataract. The lens is replaced with an IOL(intraocular). Cataract surgery is an outpatient procedure .
How can you prevent Cataract?
- Protect your eyes against UV rays by using sunglasses
- Have regular eye exams at your eye clinic.
- If you are obese, diabetic, or have high blood pressure, follow your doctor's instructions to keep these conditions under control.